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Diamonds

The Romans called it "Diamond, the Greeks - "Adamas" or "adamantos" ( invincible, irresistible), the Arabs - "almas" ( the hardest), ancient Jews - "Shamir", the Indians called it "fary". The extraordinary properties of this stone have created a lot of legends about it.

faceted diamonds

Diamonds are a crystalline modification of pure carbon, formed in the depths of the earth, in the upper mantle at depths of 80-100 km, at an extremely high temperature and pressure. From there they go to the surface in the course of major volcanic eruptions for a very short period of time. Most often this mineral is colourless, but sometimes there are yellow, brown, grey, green, pink and blue varieties. A rough stone is similar to quartz, topaz, zircon and ordinary glass. Its Mohs hardness is the highest mark - 10. It is the most precious stone, the hardest mineral, the most durable and the most brilliant and impervious of time gems.

Diamonds undergo processing like cutting and grinding to become gems. Thus they are given a special form, called the brilliant cut, revealing the optical properties of the stone. Cutters for centuries of trial and error have learned to use the refractive index of the stone to reflex the light on the faces of the pavilion, which entered the stone from the crown, and scatter in different directions. Due to the dispersion of light inherent in the diamond you can watch the game in the form of brilliant rays of all colours of the rainbow.

Rough diamond is the raw material from which the cutters make a gem and masters of jewellery - luxury product. Diamonds, like fingerprints, are unique – there are no two completely identical stones. Diamond gems on the contrary are made on a strictly defined rules. There are varieties, for example, yellow or black, which are subject to fashion and the demand is changing. But the classical diamond stands above fashion, and the demand for it does not change with age.

History

The first mention of human use of diamonds belong to India about three thousand years before Christ. In ancient India believed that these stones are formed of five nature principals - earth, water, air, sky, and energy. They have been idolised and turned into a fetish. This gave many mythical features to the gem, such as healing from diseases, protection from evil spirits, the evil eye, damage, announced giving clairvoyance, the ability to predict.

The ability to bring good luck is just one of the many properties attributed to diamonds. Turks and Persians believed that the stone saves from the evil eye, gives love and happiness, brings its owner's health, power, wealth and fame. Perhaps that is why every prominent person strives to adorn itself with these shining stones. Modern science confirms the miraculous power of diamonds: it is proved that they improve brain function, increase energy of abstract thinking, and their owners rarely suffer a bad mood - and what to grieve when on the finger, in the ears or on the neck gleams such beauty?

At first diamonds worn generals, kings and emperors. As women decoration their use begins only in the middle of the XV. Fashion to wear diamond gems introduced mistress of King Charles VII of France Agnes Sorel. Since that time, the diamonds were given names.

Some Famous Diamonds

Cullian

The largest diamond found out was named "Cullinan". It was discovered in 1905 near the city of Pretoria in South Africa. The mass of "Cullinan" was 3 106 carats (or 621 g), and it was worth 9 million pounds. The diamond was presented to King Edward VI. In processing the "Cullinan" was split into 105 parts. The largest of them weighing 516.5 carats (or 103.3 g) was named "Star of Africa".

Cullian diamond

Koh-I-Noor

Koh-I-Noor diamond

Diamond "Koh-I-Noor" was never sold for money. It was found in India in 56 BC. In 1304 Sultan Aladdin Khila cheated the king of Malwa, stolen the stone and took it to New Delhi. In 1526 the king of Kabul Babur invaded India. His son Humayun took the stone to Persia and gave it to the Shah of Persia. Then again, the diamond as a gift went to India, where they seized another Persian Shah, Nadir. Seeing the diamond, he exclaimed in admiration: "Yes, this is a real mountain of light". Since then the stone got its name: translated from Farsi "Koh-I-Noor" means "Mountain of Light".

In 1747, Nadir Shah was killed by his own guards. General Abdali captured the stone and fled to Afghanistan. In 1813, Lahore King Ranjit Singh by force got the diamond back to India, asked to insert it into a bracelet that he wore on every reception. When in 1848 a rebellion broke out two Sikh regiments all preciousness as a spoils of war were taken to England. Subjected to re-cut, the diamond's weight dropped to 21.2. In 1911 the "Koh-I-noor" was built into the small Royal State Crown of Great Britain, made for Queen Mary. Because of its dramatic history "Koh-I-noor" became the best-known jewel of England.

Diamond "Regent" weighing 400 carats (80 g) was found in 1701 in Golconda (India). British governor of Madras - the former pirate Thomas Pitt - bought the stone for 20,000 pounds from a local jeweller, took it to London and sold it in 1717 for 125,000 pounds to the regent of France Duke of Orleans. From this moment on the diamond was named "Regent". For some time it embellished Napoleon's sword. Now "Regent" is in the Louvre Museum in France. After cutting it weighs 27.35 grams and is valued at $ 3 million.

Regent

Regent diamond
Star of the South diamond

Star of the South

Brazil's first large diamond weighing 261.9 carats (or 52.4 g) was named "Star of the South." It has a bluish tint, and is completely transparent.

Diamond "Orlov" with a greenish-blue tint, weighing 200 carats (or 40 g) has crowned the royal scepter of Russia. The diamond which became the basis of this gem was found in the beginning of XVI century in Golconda in India. At first it was cut in the form of "high-Rose" weighing 300 carats. Shah Jehan was unhappy and ordered the stone to be pre-cut. After that the gem became in a modern form but its mass decreased to 200 carats. It was inserted into the throne of Nadir Shah who took possession of the city of New Delhi in 1737 and was called "Derianur" ("Sea of Light"). Later the gem was stolen, hit the market in Amsterdam, where the Count Orlov bought it in 1773 for 400 thousand rubles for Catherine II. The queen gave orders to straighten the stone in his golden scepter.

Orlov

Orlov diamond

Hope

Hope diamond

Gorgeous diamond "Hope" weighing only 45.5 carats (or 9.1 g) has a rare deep blue-sapphire colour and remarkable purity. There is no similar stone in the world. It was brought from India and sold to the French King Louis XIV. In 1792 the diamond was stolen but in 1830 re-emerged on the market and bought by a London banker Henry Hope, whose name it has. On this stone was a rumor of the fatal misfortune of its owner. Diamond was introduced to Europe from India ... with the plague. All who wielded it had either been killed or died in mysterious circumstances: Princess Lamballa - murdered, Queen of France, Marie Antoinette - beheaded, a banker's son Hope - poisoned, and his grandson lost everything. Today it is considered the most expensive small object in the world estimated at $ 200 million, or a little less than $ 5 million per carat.

Diamond "Shah" has a mass of 90 carat (or 18 g). It is yellow, but very clear, 3 cm long. The stone was found in Central India, probably in 1450. In 1591 Shah Nizam ordered to cut one of the faces of diamond inscription in Persian: "Burhan Nizam Shah the second. 1000."
In the same 1591 the ruler of North India Great Mogul Akbar captured Ahmadnagar and seized the diamond. When the Mughal dynasty ascended the throne of Akbar's grandson Shah Jahan ("Lord of the world"), he ordered to cut a different inscription on a facet of the diamond: "Son Dehangir Shah Jehan Shah. 1051." In 1641 the son of Shah Jehan Zeb Aureng hung the diamond on his throne and surrounded it with emeralds and rubies.
Until 1738 Diamond "Shah" was kept in Delhi. In 1738, India was attacked by Nadir Shah who seized the diamond and took it to Persia. In 1824 the third facet of the diamond was cut with the inscription: "Master-Qajar Fath Ali Shah Sultan. 1242."

Shah

Shah diamond

In 1829 in the Persia capital Tehran was killed Russian diplomat and writer Alexander Griboyedov. The Russian government calls for punishment of those responsible. Scared the royal court sends in Petersburg the son of Shah Khusrau Mirza who gave the Russian king the “Shah” diamond as a present.

Black Diamonds

Since the beginning of XX century to the present in the world are produced about 600 tons of diamonds. All of them were found in areas with very similar geological conditions. But Carbonado - kind of polycrystalline black diamond - clearly stands out from the picture. This rare mineral deposits in the Central African Republic and Brazil not in a places where diamonds are mined usually.


A team of U.S. scientists stated that black diamonds are apparently of cosmic origin. Similar assumptions were expressed before - in 2004. Researchers found in samples of some rare black diamond titanium and nitrogen, so far only detected in the composition of meteorites.

Black diamond

At this time, experts from Brookhaven National Laboratory have found in the black diamonds small admixture of hydrogen. According to scientists this suggests that they were formed in interstellar space which is characterised by the presence of this gas. These data provide good evidence of the theory that black diamonds are formed as a result of a supernova explosion. According to this theory apparently all the black diamonds of the Earth once formed part of a giant asteroid more than a kilometer in diameter, which collided with the Earth in prehistoric times.

Spirit of De Grisogono diamond

Spirit of De Grisogono

Spirit of De Grisogono is the world's largest cut black diamond. It is also the fifth largest diamond in the world. This diamond was mined many years ago in the west central Africa. Its initial weight was 587 carats.

This diamond ring belongs to the firm de Grisogono. White gold ring called the "Spirit of de Grisogono» and adorned with a black diamond surrounded by 702 bright diamonds, 36.69 carats in total.


Coloured Diamonds

Each coloured diamond is a completely unique piece of nature. They are called also fantasy - it is only in the wildest fantasies one can imagine the variety of colour that nature gives to the king of gems.

faceted diamonds

Speaking of diamonds, it is common to praise their purity and the icy-sparkling light. Reference stones are colourless and are compared with clear cool mountain spring water. These stones are very much expensive and are extremely rare in the nature. But among other rarities of diamonds there are stones that nature has provided one of the colours of the rainbow, making them shiny hymn to beauty.

faceted diamonds

The color diamonds are not just beautiful and their ability to play with light is not inferior to colorless diamonds. But they are an individual that you remember once and for all. Not coincidentally in the ancient times they were owned only by majesties of royal blood.

Today the true connoisseurs include colored diamonds in exquisite collections. Any colored diamond regardless of its size and color is unique by colors and shades of the same color, the degree of saturation, its brightness. Of the thousands of diamonds, only one has a deep natural color.

Even now, when the diamond industry brings to the markets colossal amount of this shining stone, colored diamonds account for only 1 percent of the mass produced. Rare colored diamond dictates a higher price. Historical materials traced back to a particular fondness for colored diamonds. Louis XIV ordered to decorate their crown in blue with a red tint 112 carat diamond. Among the treasures of Windsor dynasty a gift to Princess Elizabeth occupies a special place. This pink diamond weighing 23 carats and costs about £ 2.5 million.

Diamond Engagement Rings

Appraisement

Appraisal of jewellery diamonds requires special knowledge and experience. First of all it takes into account the colour, clarity, cut and weight of stone in carats (1 carat = 0.2 grams). Cut diamonds which under a magnifying glass with a tenfold increase have indistinguishable internal defects and inclusions are called "clean with a magnifying glass." Currently diamonds lend mostly diamond-shaped and only small diamonds are cut in the shape of a rose. A perfect diamond has 58 facets, but in smaller diamonds they make no more than 44. Exceptionally large stones may have more facets.

Legends and Beliefs

Symbolic understanding of diamond in Europe is extensive - this is firmness, courage, valor, victory over pain and disease, fidelity, constancy, dominance, gloss, high social position, light, joy, prosperity, pride. In India, the diamond symbolises chastity.

Astrological dictionary says that a diamond is a terrible rock. But apparently do not be afraid of it, just need to be careful and cautious in "communion" with the king of precious stones. It can give you happiness only if you get a dedication or if you got by inheritance, or as a sign of power. The best is to get it as a present.

According to the legend the diamond brings good luck to its owners, protects against disease and injury, gives courage and bravery in battle. It gives him victory over his enemies if its cause is just. Diamonds prevent sadness, magic and evil spirits. Sewn into clothing they protect "against the evil eye and evil spells." In ancient times, this sparkling and unique stone prescribed ability to cure diseases of the stomach and liver. In addition, according to the ancient it is an effective anti-aging, ensuring prosperity and spiritual development, enhancing memory and creating a cheerful, happy mood.

Gem diamonds as a talisman to be worn on the left hand on the ring finger or neck. It is better that it touches the skin - it will strengthen its impact. Diamonds provide the necessary power to the owner, but only on one condition – it must have been got in an honest manner. It does not promise success to thieves or murderers: once in their hands the stone can bring untold misfortune to them.

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